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[ /usr/local/man/cat1/mlalias.1 ]

MLALIAS(1L)                                                        MLALIAS(1L)

NAME
       mlalias - program to examine and manipulate the mail alias database.

SYNOPSIS
       mlalias [-Clpqrtvw] [-c comment]
               [-a address{,address} ] [-d address{,address} ]
               [-A owner{,owner} ] [-D owner{,owner} ]
               [-M moderator{,moderator} ]
               [-s address{,address} ]
               [-f flagvalue{,flagvalue} ]
       [-g configfile]
       alias
       mlalias -h [usage|owners|senders|options|flags]
       mlalias -i [-q]
       mlalias -e alias{,alias}
       mlalias -L flagvalue{,flagvalue}

DESCRIPTION
       mlalias  is  the  user agent for accessing and modifying the mail alias
       database.

       Email sent to a mail alias will be forwarded to the  addresses  on  the
       address  list  associated with that alias, depending on various permis-
       sions and conditions associated with that mail alias.

       Each mail alias contains:

       A name which is the key by which entries are looked up.       The  case
              of the name is ignored.

       A comment
              which can be used to describe the purpose of  the alias.

       A list of addresses
              to which email will be forwarded.

              These  address should be RFC822 conforming addresses, optionally
              with the @domain part left off.  Thus  they  can  have  comments
              included with individual addresses.

              When  an address is local, it is best to give just the localpart
              without the domain or any other decoration, as then mlalias  can
              immediately expand the name if a local alias exists.  See RFC822
              for definitions of addresses, domains and localparts.

       A list of owners
              who are allowed to change the  entry,  and  who  are  considered
              responsible for it.

       A list of moderators
              to  whom the email is sent if it is sent from an address that is
              not allowed to post to this (moderated)  alias.   The  addresses
              permitted  to  post  will  depend  on  the  moderated flag value
              (either moderated or members_can_post).

              Unauthorised posts to a moderated mail aliases are  expected  to
              be  vetted  by  (one  of) the moderators, and forwarded onto the
              address list if approved.  All alias moderators are  also  alias
              owners.

       A list of flags which selected between:
              personal/system, public/private, privileged/unprivileged, moder-
              ated/members_can_post/unmoderated, and open/closed/optional.

       By default, mlalias simply prints out its  mail  alias  args  in  human
       readable form unless it has been passed options to change the alias, in
       which case it needs to be passed the '-p' option to print out the alias
       after making any changes.

EXIT STATUS
       Depends  on -q (quiet) flag which supresses all output (including error
       and warning messages):

       If -q is used, then return 0 (success) iff ALL modifications were  suc-
       cessful, else return success iff at least one mod was successful

       If aliases are being listed (via -l) or selected (via -L flagval), then
       return success iff at least one alias was printed.

OWNERS
       There is a distinguished alias called 'postmaster' in  the  mail  alias
       database.   The  owners  of  this  alias  have  ownership rights to ALL
       aliases in the database, and may create or modify any mail  alias,  and
       delete any alias (except postmaster),

       All  other users who are not registered owners of postmaster, have more
       restricted rights:

       Creation rights:
              Users may only create mail aliases which have either:

              Names that exactly match the  user's  account  name  or  account
              alias

              Name  prefixes  (before the first period) that exactly match the
              user's account name or account alias.  Any  string  of  alphanu-
              meric  characters  (including periods or underscores) may follow
              the first period.

              Name prefixes (before the first period), that exactly match  the
              name  of  any  mail alias that they already own (ie: aliases for
              which the user is already explicitly listed as an owner).

       All new mail aliases are created with the user explicitly listed as  an
       owner by default.

       Modification and Deletion rights:

              Users  may  only  modify  or  delete  mail aliases for which the
              user's account name or account alias is explicitly listed as  an
              owner.

              If a mail alias is flagged open, then any user may add or delete
              their own account name or alias from the mail  alias's  list  of
              addresses.

              If  a  mail  alias is flagged optional, then any user may delete
              their own account name or alias from the mail  alias's  list  of
              addresses.

       Example:  If  the  user  user1  is  not  an owner of postmaster, but is
       already an owner of name1,  then  user1  may  create  any  of  the  new
       aliases: user1 user1.test name1.fred name1.fred.frog etc.

       If  the  user  then  removed themself from the list of owners of any of
       these new aliases (for whatever reason), then they would no  longer  be
       able  to  modify or delete these aliases, despite previously having had
       permission to create them.  Note that any open and optional flag  modi-
       fication rights would still apply.

       Access Permission Summary:

              Owners  of  the  alias  postmaster may create, delete, change or
              examine anything.

              Any owner of an alias may delete, change or examine that alias.

              Any user can create an alias providing that the alias  does  not
              already  exist,  and  that  the user is an owner of the name, as
              defined in '1) Creation rights' above.

              Any user can add their username to,  or  remove  their  username
              from, the list of addresses of any alias that is open.

              Any user can remove their username from the list of addresses of
              any alias that is optional.

              Anyone can examine any public alias.

              No other access is permitted.

       Note: The right to post to mail aliases (whether moderated or  not)  is
       quite separate from the access rights above.

OPTIONS
       Many of the following options have effects that are restricted to users
       that are either an owner of postmaster, or of the  alias  in  question.
       These options are marked: (Owners Only)

       Options are as follows:

       -C     Create  a  new mail alias. By default the alias address list and
              comment field will be empty, the owner will be the user who cre-
              ated  the  alias  and the alias will be closed, private and per-
              sonal.  Users can only create aliases for names which they  own.
              See definition of name ownership above.

       -c comment
              Replace the comment associated with the alias.  (Owners Only)

              In  conjunction  with -l, list aliases whose comment matches the
              regular expression passed (case is ignored).

       -f flagval{,flagval}
              Set the flags to the given flag values (Owners Only)
              See the FLAGS section for details of the various flags and their
              values.

              In conjunction with -l, list aliases matching the flags passed.

       -R     Remove the mail alias(es) passed (Owners Only).

              Note: The postmaster alias cannot be deleted.

       -A name{,name}
              Add the name(s) to the list of alias owners.  (Owners Only)

              If  the  name  starts  with a '+', or if it contains an asterisk
              '@', then it is considered to  be  the  name  of  an  authorised
              sender  and  added  to  the  list  of authorised senders for the
              alias, and NOT added to the list of alias owners. Any '+' prefix
              is removed.

              If  you  wish to add a name containing a '@' to the list of own-
              ers, then start the name with a '-' (the '-' prefix is removed).

              In conjuction with -l, list aliases containing  all  the  listed
              owners  and/or  authorised  senders.  To be listed, aliases must
              also be public or owned by the user.

       -D name{,name}
              Delete the name(s) from the list of alias owners.  (Owners Only)

              If the name starts with a '+', or if  it  contains  an  asterisk
              '@',  then  it  is  considered  to  be the name of an authorised
              sender and removed from the list of authorised senders  for  the
              alias,  and  NOT  removed from the list of alias owners. Any '+'
              prefix is removed.

              If you wish remove a name containing a '@' from the list of own-
              ers, then start the name with a '-' (the '-' prefix is removed).

       -M name{,name}
              Toggle  the  moderator  flag  of  these alias owner(s).  (Owners
              Only)
              ie:
              All name(s) that are already just owners, are made moderators.
              All name(s) that are already moderators, are made just owners.
              All name(s) that are neither owners  nor  moderators,  are  made
              both.

              In  conjunction  with -l, list aliases containing all the listed
              moderators.  To be listed, aliases must also be public or  owned
              by the user.

       -s address{,address}
              Set  the  alias  address list to the address(es) given.  (Owners
              Only)
              ie: Delete existing addresses, add these addresses instead.

       -a address{,address}
              Add the address(es) to the alias address list.

              This option is restricted to owners unless:
              a) The alias is open and the address matches  the  user's  user-
              name,
              b)  The  alias is optional, the address matches the user's user-
              name, and the address starts with an '!'.

              If an address starts with an '!', then that address  is  deleted
              from  the  final  list  of  expanded addresses returned for this
              alias.

              Explicitly adding '!addr' to  an  alias  will  also  delete  any
              explicit inclusion of 'addr' from the list of addresses for this
              alias.

              Explicitly adding 'addr'  to  an  alias  will  also  delete  any
              explicit  inclusion  of  '!addr'  from the list of addresses for
              this alias.

              In conjunction with -l, list aliases containing all  the  listed
              addresses  and/or address deletions.  To be listed, aliases must
              also be public or owned by the user.

       -d address{,address}
              Delete the address(es) from the alias  address  list,  including
              addresses of the form '!addr'.

              This option is restricted to owners unless:
              a)  the  alias is open and  the address matches the user's user-
              name,
              b) the alias is optional, the address matches the  user's  user-
              name, and the address does not start with an '!'.

              To  delete  addresses  from the final list of expanded addresses
              returned for this alias, use '-a !address' (see above).

              As addresses can often be long, mlalias allows you to delete  an
              address  without  giving  the  whole address. Addresses starting
              with a '/', will be matched against existing  addresses  in  the
              alias, and if there is precisely one such matching address, then
              mlalias will delete that single matching address.

       -i     Interactive mode. Read and process mlalias options and arguments
              from  standard input.  Input lines are echoed to standard output
              prefixed by ' - ', unless the

       -r     Print the alias(es) in raw, colon separated format:

              alias_name:alias_comment:addresslist:ownerlist:senderlist::flag-
              value

              where each list is comprised of comma separated values.

              In conjunction with -v, the flagvalue is printed as a comma sep-
              arated list of (human readable) strings, otherwise it is printed
              as  the corresponding numeric value that would have been printed
              out by the old mlalias program.

              If the alias is not public or the user is not  an  alias  owner,
              then addresslist, ownerlist, and senderlist will be empty.

              Note:  the second last colon separated field is always empty. It
              is included to be backwardly compatible  with  the  old  mlalias
              program in which place it would display the now obsolete modifi-
              cation date field.

       -l     List of all the alias names which exist in the  alias  database.
              The aliases are listed one per line.

              In conjunction with -v, include the associated comment.

              In conjunction with -r, print the aliases in raw form.

              In  conjunction  with -c, -f, -a, -A, and/or -M, list only those
              aliases that match each of the comment, flags,  addresses,  own-
              ers,  senders,  and moderators passed.  To be selected using -a,
              -A and/or -M, the aliases must also be either public or owned by
              the user.

              Note: '-l -f flags' is equivalent to '-L flags'

       -L flagvalue{,flagvalue}
              List all of the aliases in the aliases database which have flags
              with the given flagvalue(s) set.  The aliases are listed one per
              line.   If more than one value is listed for the same flag, then
              only the last value applies to that flag.  See the FLAGS section
              for details of the various flags and their values.

              In conjunction with -v, include the associated comment.

              In conjunction with -r, print the aliases in raw form.

       -v     Verbose  list  mode.   In conjunction with the -land-L (listing)
              options, -v will list the alias name and its associated comment.
              In conjunction with the -r (computer readable) option, -v causes
              the flags to be written as a comma separated list of human read-
              able strings.

       -p     Print  alias  listing  after changes. Otherwise only print error
              messages and return exit code after making changes.

       -q     Quiet. Generate no output (including errors/warnings).

              If aliases are being created, modified or deleted,  return  suc-
              cess  (ie: exit code 0) if and only if ALL changes were success-
              full.

              If aliases would have been listed (using '-l'  or  '-L  value'),
              return success iff at least one alias would have been printed.

       -e     Expand  the alias(es) passed. ie: list all final email addresses
              to which email sent to this alias would be sent. The  alias  and
              any  aliases  that  it recursively refers to, must be public, or
              belong to the user, or the user must be an owner of  postmaster,
              for  the  final email addresses coming from it to be listed.  If
              run in conjunction with -v, a header identifying the alias,  and
              a  footer  giving  the  number of final addresses not listed, is
              also printed.

       -h[usage|owners|senders|options|flags]
              Print help. Passing one of the listed arguments will  print  out
              more  detailed  help  for  that  aspect of mlalias. (Default: -h
              usage )

FLAGS
       There are five separate flags associated with aliases.  The  flags  and
       their values are:

       personal/system
              This  distinction is purely for human convenience.  People often
              want to look though the list of aliases without  being  bothered
              by individual personal aliases.  Aliases are created as personal
              by default, but can set to system by the owner.

       closed/open/optional
              If an alias is closed, then only owners may add addresses to, or
              delete addresses from the alias.  Aliases are closed by default.

              If  an  alias is open, then any user can add or delete their own
              username from the list of addresses in the alias.  This  enables
              list  selfsubscription. Users may explicitly add or delete them-
              selves to the list (using -a username or -d username ) or add or
              delete  themselves from the final expanded list (using -a !user-
              name or -d !username )

              If an alias is optional, then any user  can  only  delete  them-
              selves from the address list if they are on it (using -dusername
              ), or they can delete themselves from the  final  expanded  list
              (using -a !username ).

       private/public
              A  private  alias can only be viewed by an owner. A public alias
              can be viewed by anybody.  Making an alias private does not stop
              anyone  sending  mail  through  that alias. It only stops people
              seeing the list of addressees using mlalias.  Aliases  are  pri-
              vate by default.

       moderated/unmoderated/members_can_post
              If  an   alias  is unmoderated, then anyone is permitted to send
              email via this mail alias to members of the address list.

              If an alias is moderated, then email will be  sent  directly  to
              all  members  of the address list if and only if the email comes
              from an owner, or an authorised sender.

              If an  alias  is  members_can_post,  then  email  will  be  sent
              directly  to  all  members of the address list if and only if it
              comes from an owner, a member of the address list, or an  autho-
              rised sender.

              Otherwise,  the  email  is  sent  to every moderator of the mail
              alias, and it is up to one (or more) of these moderators to pass
              the mail onto members of the address list if it is deemed appro-
              priate.

              Authorised senders may be explicitly added to, or removed from a
              mail alias using the -A +sender or -D +sender options.  They are
              displayed by mlalias only when explicitly added.

              Authorised senders also  implicitly  include  the  UNSW  aliases
              associated with each explicitly permitted sender (whether owner,
              explicitly authorised sender, or address list member).  The UNSW
              aliases  are  the UNSW mail address and UNSW redirection address
              associated with the ZID associated with the sender (as stored in
              the local user database).

              Eg:  If  the  moderated  mail  alias  (MMA) has an owner X (zid:
              Xzid), who has a UNSW mail alias Y@unsw.edu.au, and a UNSW redi-
              rection  to  Z@external.addr,  then  X will be permitted to send
              email to MMA from: X@cse.unsw.edu.au, Y@unsw.edu.au, or Z@exter-
              nal.addr.

       privileged/unprivileged
              If  an alias is privileged then any mail sent to it by an autho-
              rised poster (owner) will successfully be sent to any  moderated
              aliases  that  are mentioned on the address list, rather than to
              the moderator of those aliases.  Only an owner of postmaster may
              set the privileged flag.

       Note:  The  option:  -f flagval{,flagval} can be used to set mail alias
              flag values.

              The options: -L flagval{,flagval} or -l -f flagval{,flagval} may
              be  used to list all the aliases (one per line) which have flags
              with the given flagval(s) set.

EXPANSION
ERRORS
       All errors are reported  unless  otherwise  requested  by  setting  the
       silent mode, mlalias returns the following exit status:
        0    Success
        1    Alias already exists (or doesn't exist)
        2    No permission to perform operation
        3    Failed to communicate with server or system error

EXAMPLES
       o      To view the alias "croissant_club":

              % mlalias croissant_club

                           Alias: croissant_club
                     Description: Croissant Breakfast Mailing list
                           Flags: personal, private, unprivileged, unmoderated, closed
                       Addresses:
                                  jane
                                  john
                                  albert
                          Owners: albert

       o      To  create  an  alias "compsoc" with the comment "Computer Group
              Alias" and add the addresses fred, john and steve:

              % mlalias -C -c 'Computer Group Alias' -a fred,john,steve  comp-
              soc

       o      To add fred and john to the compsoc ownerlist:

              % mlalias -A fred,john compsoc

       o      To  delete  steve  as an owner and addressee of compsoc and make
              compsoc private and closed:

              % mlalias compsoc -d steve -f private,closed -D steve

       o      To list all of the addresses of compsoc:

              % mlalias -e compsoc

       o      To remove the alias compsoc from the mail alias database:

              % mlalias -R compsoc

SEE ALSO
       netgroup(4).

                                                                   MLALIAS(1L)

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