|To review the grammar of English, introducing some terms for describing different types of English phrases, and the concept of a grammar rule. We also have a quick look at how the different levels of linguistic knowledge interact.|
features in NLP,
|Linguistics||- study of language and of languages|
|Psycholinguistics||- language and the mind, models of human language processing|
|Neurolinguistics||- neural-level models of language processing|
|Logic||- an unambiguous formal language useful for representing (unambiguous) meanings|
SR = Speech Recognition; NLP = Natural Language Processing
The man saw the boy on the hill with the telescope.
Steven hated Paul. He hit him.
he = Steven, or he = Paul ?
Men are all alike.
In what way?
They're always bugging us about something.
Can you think of a specific example?
Well, my boyfriend made me come here.
Your boyfriend made you come here?
He says I'm depressed much of the time.
I am sorry to hear you are depressed.
It's true - I am unhappy.
Do you think coming here will help you not to be unhappy?
I need some help.
Earlier you said you were unhappy.
I like $Object) in the input, discarded inessential bits, turned what was left around (I like pizza → you like pizza), and added an "attitude" (I'm sorry to hear you like pizza).
My favourite exchange from Eliza:
My sister is going out with a fish.
Are any other members of your family going out with a fish?
|Reference:||Allen, Chapter 2|
|Aim:||To review linguistic knowledge, introducing some terms for describing different types of English phrases, and the concept of a grammar rule.|
|proper nouns||abstract nouns||mass nouns||count nouns||Iraq||philosophy||sand||apple|
|you laugh||you kill an ant*||you give him a book|
* NB: this is bad karma, and the staff of COMP9414 will not be held responsible if you take such a course of action
|declarative (indicative)||John is listening|
|yes/no question (interrogative)||Is John listening?|
|wh-question (interrogative)||When is John listening?|
|subjunctive||If John were listening, he might hear something to his advantage|
The subjunctive mood often describes a counter-factual situation - that is, it describes a situation that is not a fact - in our example of the subjunctive form, John is not listening.
The large, vicious dog
The oldest man in the world who still has all his hair
The oldest second-generation American man who still has all his hair and also a CIA credit card
NP → DET ADJ NOUN
DET = determiner; ADJ= adjective.
Read this as "a Noun Phrase can be an DETerminer followed by an ADJective followed by a NOUN." E.g. a vicious dog
There are many other NP structures and hence other NP rules. Here are two more:
NP → DET NOUN
NP → QUANT CARD NOUN e.g. all three tutors
NP → DET NOUN | DET ADJ NOUN | QUANT CARD NOUN
PP → PREP NP | NP 's
VP → V | V NP | V NP NP
i.e. A VP can be just a Verb, or a Verb followed by an NP, or a Verb followed by two NPs.
S → NP VP | AUX NP VP "?" | WH AUX NP VP "?"
|S → NP VP||Time flies|
|S → AUX NP VP "?"||Did you go?|
|S → WH AUX NP VP "?"||When did you go?|
The head verb is (may be) inflected:
|eat||eating||eats||ate||eaten||IRREGULAR (STRONG) much change|
|set||setting||sets||set||set||IRREGULAR (STRONG) little change|
|-||-||can||could||-||IRREGULAR (MISSING FORMS)|
|be||being||am/is/are||was/were||been||IRREGULAR (VERB "to be")|
|simple present||He eats the pizza|
|simple past||She ate the pizza|
|simple future||He will eat the pizza|
|present perfect||She has eaten the pizza|
|future perfect||He will have eaten the pizza|
|pluperfect||She had eaten the pizza|
|Active Form||Passive Form (if any)|
|Jim eats buns||Buns are eaten by Jim|
|Dan helps the student||The student is helped by Dan|
|but Bill glares||* Is glared by Bill|
Peter threw up
Trevor ate up the pastie
but Jim ate up the street (here up is a PREP)
John's giving up the game was cowardly
The man who gave Paul the money was crazy
The money that was given to Paul was lost or
The money given to Paul was lost
Benedict believes he is the Pope
Margaret wants to own a fire-engine red Porsche
Blake promised that he would never steal a bear again
|gracious||more gracious||most gracious|
|Summary: Outline of English Syntax|
While reviewing English syntax, we have introduced a number
of terms and symbols for describing types of words and phrases in English,
including the lexical categories N, V, ADJ, ADV, CONJ, INTERJ, and PREP,
and phrasal categories NP, VP, PP, ADVP, ADJP, VG, and S.
In passing, we also introduced the concept of grammar rules such as|
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Copyright © Bill Wilson, 2007, except where another source is acknowledged.