Many of the usual arithmetic operators are available in Prolog:
+addition2 is 1 + 1.
subtraction1 is 2 – 1.
unary minusTry the query X is 1, Y is - X.
*multiplication4 is 2 * 2.
/division2 is 6 / 3.
//integer division1 is 7 // 4.
modinteger remainder3 is 7 mod 4.
**exponentiation1.21 is 1.1 ** 2.

Except in the context of an arithmetic comparison operator, arithmetic expressions need to be explicitly evaluated in Prolog, using the is built-in predicate.

Mostly one uses these operators in a goal more like this:

X is Y + 2
where Y is a variable already bound to a numeric value, or perhaps a arithmetic comparison goal like this:
X > Y * Z
Here's another example: a rule to tell if a (whole) number is odd:
odd(Num) :- 1 is Num mod 2.
Another way to do this one is to use =:=:
odd(Num) :- Num mod 2 =:= 1.
If you wanted to be more cautious, you could first check that Num is in fact a whole number:
odd(Num) :- integer(Num), 1 is Num mod 2.

As usual in digital computations, with fractional numbers, it is necessary to be careful with approximation issues. Thus the final example in the table above, 1.21 is 1.1 ** 2. actually fails when typed into Prolog as a query. This is because 1.1 ** 2, as represented in computers, actually comes out to be something like 1.210000000001. See the section on comparison operators for a solution to this issue.

Note that SWI Prolog does some apparently strange stuff in the domain of arithmetic (dialogue below done with SWI-Prolog Version 5.6.58):

?- X is [a].
X = 97.

?- X is [a] + [b].
X = 195.

?- X is sqrt(23456).
X = 153.154.

?- X is sqrt([23456]).
X = 153.154.

?- X is sqrt(123456789).
X = 11111.1.

?- X is sqrt([123456789]).
X = 13.3791.
The ASCII code for a is 97, which sort of explains the first two query outcomes. The last pair of queries are particularly strange. It is best to avoid relying on this sort of thing, and stick to standard arithmetical notation. Avoid strange tricks: code should be comprehensible.

See also comparison operators, built-in functions.