Information Technology Staff Load Calculation - A proposal

Heinz Schmidt
Created: 20.4.98
Last revised: 09.03.99 previous version

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Acknowledgement Context Load Formula Load Process Monash SD Monash Econ
Monash Mech Eng Sydney UNSW ANU QUT

1. Acknowledgement and References

The following proposal is based on established load calculations that have stood the test of time: All existing load formulas quoted include teaching and research student supervision load in a weighted sum. Some include administration duties. For ease of comparison we normalise the respective weights to measure hours per week averaged over two semesters, which is the most commonly used unit of measurement. (Some calculations measure the entire year load as 1.0; others measure the total hours for the year).

2. Context

Both teaching and research load are curently computed in the faculty or in central databases such as MUSIS (student supervsion, timetabling information, School load coordination etc).

Load predication, monitoring and performance improvement require a well-defined load model, capturing load partly quantitatively (measured in hours per week) and partly qualitatively (listing expected duties and roles).

The Monash Staff Engagement Profiles formally require listing teaching and research student supervision load explicitly as the minimum quantitative information required.

Ultimately, the allocations and workloads are the responsibility of the Head of School. In most Schools, this is delegated to a load coordinator (often per campus). Across Australia and in the faculty, in most Schools load recommendations are participatory processes, with groups (by year or area) feeding recommendations into the load allocation.

Fairness and openness of the process requires a well-defined baseline (such as the number of subjects, or hours, or supervised students per staff on average). From the load formulas quoted from other universities, this number is typically in the range of 17 to 23 hours per week, varying by year, student load, problems.

Staff generally accept that a perfect system is not possible, that the quantitative measurements are relatively coarse grained. Staff expect rightly that special credits are given for high performance in prior semesters such as extra industry projects, extra publications (DETYA classified), or for staff development such as staff PhD or the induction of junior staff.

General requirements to a load model include

3. The Load Process

The faculty aims at a fairly transparent and open load allocation process, which respects preferences and capabilities and allows peers to help improve the quality of teaching and the administration process. At the same time, load conflicts may have to be resolved and are ultimately a responsibility of the Head of School, or her delegate, within the constraints of load principles and the load process set out below.

Preliminary load allocation are published by the beginning of the year for the entire year. At the start of the year the administration roles of staff are typically defined, competitive research grants outcomes and repeating research students are known, and, preliminary teaching allocations have been made. New research students and grants and also critical subjects that may or may not run can be factored in tentatively to be confirmed at a later stage.

Teaching load recommendations are developed by areas of expertise. At the third year and postgraduate levels these are typically formed around research groups. For earlier years they are formed around the core of teaching programs (degrees).

Recommendations should respect interest and capabilities of staff but also should aim at achieving economies of scale. For instance, a lecturer should teach the same subjects at least 4 times in a row in the interest of amortising the efforts invested into developing the subject, and in order to improve its quality incrementally. For smallish subjects (under 100), a lecturer will take at least one tutorial, etc.

At most 20% (in term of projected enrollment) of subjects are planned as new or low enrollment subjects (if at all).

If tutors are allocated multiple tutes they are preferably in the same subject. (The structure of teaching assistant packages and tutors wages is to be reviewed periodically to make sure it does not work against this principle.)

Prelimiary load allocation is published to all staff by the middle of the preceding semester. A "departmental day" or "weekend" is used to discuss plans for subject revisions and new subjects, so that feedback can be gained from prerequisite, corequisite or dependent subjects' lecturers, from the respective course and year coordinators, and overall subject sequences remain in-tact.

Load allocation for "stable" subjects are finalised and published at the end of the preceding semester. Potentially low-enrollment subjects, such as Honours subjects or some third year electives are flagged as "critical subjects" at that time. Critical subjects may be cancelled or reallocated.

The final teaching load allocations for such critical subjects or for reallocations due to exceptional circumstances are published as soon as possible but no later than one week before the respective semester.

At the same time supervision load allocations are finalised.

4. The Load Formula

A mixed quantitative and qualitative approach is proposed. All items are described in sufficient detail for the summary to be used by staff as a basis for promotion applications or as a basis for staff engagement profiles and their required attachments.

For quantified load the relevant figure is factored into a weighted sum using the table below. Some administration duties will only be listed by the tasks or roles a staff has in the department and a classification into heavy or medium administrative load will determine the load figure to be used. The list and classification of administrative roles and duties are reviewed by Schools annually.

Quantitative teaching and research (supervision) load and also certain administrative duties are treated on an equal footing as hours per week.

The baseline is 18 hours per week. In general staff should carry a roughly equal load. Note that the remaining 17 hours per week include general overhead times such as telephone, mail processing, project and department meetings, consultancies, conference committee and organisation duties, various unaccounted minor administrative duties, new degree and research proposals, and last but not least research!

For some items there are caps. For example the university caps the supervision load at 5.0 fulltime equivalent PhD students. This equates to 7.5 hrs per week capped. Schools may have additional constraints for balancing research, teaching and administration profiles of staff with School needs.

It is often relevant to distinguish load claimed from load allocated by the School. For example, in one year, the School may not wish to run Honours subject with 3 students, yet the staff may decide to run this subject without allocated load, for example in the hope to attract a PhD student. In the load summary, this subject will not enter the formula. However it is still worthwhile to record the qualitative data for promotion, reference letters etc, and in general for performance planning and evaluation.

In some cases the School may wish to allocate a subject with low enrollment for reasons of developing an area of scholarship, or a new degree etc.

The proposed weights table below is structured similar to that of the old Software Development load model. However the weights account for hours per week including related duties rather than just counting contact hours. The weights are still "tougher" than those of UNSW and Sydney.

The load calculation remains coarser grained than that of UNSW and Sydney. We try to avoid a controversial formula for research performance and also a detailed accounting of hours per administrative role.

Subject lecturing and coordination are separated. Coordination includes tutor managment, assignment and exam setting and marking, representation of the subject in School or faculty committees etc. Lecturing itself is just a small portion of the effort.

Where the effort is split between staff, the points are split pro rata.

Similarly tutorial time distinguishes preparation, contact, consultation and marking.

Staff allowances protect new staff and help them manage their time by allowing for an extra 5 hours per week (roughly one subject). The allowances also reward staff for DETYA category C1 and E1 (in the prior year publication data collection) in excess of a moderate average of 2 papers per year.

Leave or secondment (full or part time) is reflected on a pro-rata basis. For example, if the faculty appoints a staff member 0.4 as Associate Dean (Teaching) and reimburses the School at 0.4 of the salary costs incl overheads, 0.4 x 20 = 8.0 enters the weighted sum.

In the following scenario, a lecturer teaches (for the second time) one medium size core subject of 180 students in both semesters including all cordination for this subject (2.5+4.0). One of the subject runs is taught as a night class (add 1.0). Additionally a 2hr Honours subject with 11 students is taught by the same lecturer in semester 1 (2.25). She supervises 2 honours students (2.0) and 3 PhD students full-time (4.5) and manages a large ARC grant of $70,000 in the current year (2.0). Beside this she is on the equipment and school liaison committee (1.0).

This adds up to: 7.5+2.25+2.0+4.5+2.0+1.0 = 19.25

This lecturer has load in excess of the expected baseline of 18 hours. The excess points of 1.25 will be carried forward into the next year.

Lecture (1hr/week full year) 
Lecture new subject 2.0
Lecture with revision 1.25
Repeat lecture 1.0
Subjects run as mostly seminars 0.5
Normal subject converted to reading 0.1
Subject coordination (full-year) add: 
Smallish subject (50-100)2.0
Medium subject (100-200) 4.0
Large subject (> 200) 6.0
Honours subject (> 10) 2.0
Masters subject (> 10) 2.0
Admin assistance in medium/large subject (*) 1.0
Night lecture 1.0
Tutorial contact 1.0
Tutorial preparation1.0
Tutorial marking and consultation 1.0
Research supervision 
F/T HDR (PhD or Masters Research) full year 1.5
F/T Honours full year 1.0
Course Masters (50%) minor thesis full year 0.5
Course Masters (25%) minor thesis full year 0.25
New staff allowance 5.0
Staff PhD or Master's research 2.5
Per intl C1 or E1 papers in excess of 2 (prior year) 1.0
Research allowance per $25K grant per year 1.0
Leave or secondment (full year) 18.0 (baseline)
Head of Department 12.0
High load 4.0
Medium load 2.0
Minor load 0.5

High load administration items

First year core subject coordination; deputy head; chair of main departmental committees: education, research, load and audit, with associated representation at the faculty committee level; Postgraduate coordination, Honours coordination; Final year industry project coordination.

Medium load admininistration items

Year coordinator; Major coordinator

Minor administrative items

Chair of minor departmental committee such as equipment committee; school liaison committee etc; newsletter editor.

What others do

5. Monash University, Department of Software Development, 1995-1997

The model of the SD department used the weights of the Econometrics Department at Monash and adds to that some elements of the UNSW model including allowances for new staff and staff development. In addition some bonuses were given for ARC grants to encourage grant applications. Similar to the Econometrics load model, the points equate to contact hours per week rather than hours per week. This assumes that associated efforts are uniformly dependent on contact hours irrespective of the duties such as research supervision, lecturing etc. With an average of 3 2-hour subjects per year, four research students, one honours student and a mixed administrative load of 2.5 say, one would end up at a figure of 6+4+1+2.5=13.5.

5.1 Teaching Load Calculation

The basis for the calculation is the contact time in hours per week. 1 point of subject includes various related duties and does not readily equate to 1hr per week. The normal subject obtaining 1.0 points requires some revisions.

For large subjects, such as first year subjects or Java electives (with 270 students in 1997) extra points are added as subject administration which accounts for extra student counselling, tutors management etc.

5.2 Research

For research supervision load we follow Prof. Max King's model (Monash Econometrics, Clayton) equating an hour lecture over the full year with the supervision, reading, joint writing etc in connection with one equivalent full-time HDR student.

5.3 Administration

Administrative duties are simply categorised in light to heavy load. A list of such duties is published. Such duties include year coordination, Honours coordination etc.

Administration duties are reviewed yearly.

Lecture (1hr/week full year) 
Lecture new subject 1.5
Lecture with revision 1.0
Repeat lecture 0.9
Tutorial 0.75
Subjects run as mostly seminars 0.5
Normal subject converted to reading 0.1
Subject coordination add: 
Medium subject (100-200) 1.0
Large subject (> 200) 2.0
Admin assistance in medium/large subject (*) 1.0
Staff development allowance  
New staff allowance 1.0
Staff PhD or Master's research 1.5
ARC small grant 0.35
ARC large grant 1.5
Research supervision 
F/T HDR (PhD or Masters Research) full year 1
F/T Honours full year 0.5
Course Masters (50%) minor thesis full year 0.5
Course Masters (25%) minor thesis full year 0.25
Head of Department 4.0
High load 1.0
Medium load 0.5
Light load 0.125

6. Monash University, Econometrics Department

Quoth Max King email, 1995...

>    # The teaching formula is fairly simple:
>    # 1 point for each contact hour for an entire year 
>    # I.e. 2hours for one semester (half year) gives one point.
>    # Tutorials get weigthed as 0.75 because of their nature.
>    # 4th and 5th year classes get a weight of 1.25 because
>    # of their more difficult content.
>    # Graduate research supervision is 1 for full-time M.Ec. or Ph.D.
>    # where the staff member is the only supervisor. Part-time is
>    # .5 and shared supervision means the points get shared.
>    # Kind regards Max King

7. Monash University, Mechanical Engineering

Quoth John Sheridan email, 09 Mar 1999 The process is fairly transparent and open.

In general there is an attempt to balance all primary teaching evenly i.e. all lecturing. Thus, most people in Mechanical Engineering lecture in about 3 subjects, spread over the full year (26 weeks). The exception is where people are part-time, in which case their load is divided by their fraction e.g. if they are half-time their load is divided by 0.5 (or X 2). The units are "hours" over the year. Weightings are applied if the lecturer is giving the subject for the first time or it is a large class. The weightings are 1.3, where a large class is considered to be one with over 100 students enrolled.
Lecture (1hr/week full year)  
Regular subject 1.0
New subject 1.3
Large subject 1.3
Tutorial/Lab 1 hour/week 1.0
Final year project supervision (1 student) 1.0
Final year project supervision (> 1 students) 1.5
Research Supervision  
full-time higher degree research student 1.0

We seem to do less secondary teaching now i.e. tutoring or demonstrating in subjects we are not lecturing in. If we do, the credit is 1 hour per hour in the class/lab. We give 1 hour/week for supervision of final year thesis projects if one student is involved and 1.5 hours/week if there are 2 or more students working on the project. Similarly we give one hour/week for full-time p/g student supervision and half this if part-time.

Overall, the numbers can look quite horrendous if one does all this. Typically, we had annual (26 week) load of 450+ hours i.e. over 17 hours/week, but this is with loadings and p/g supervision, which might be considered research rather than teaching.

From information gathered in the US: MIT, Princeton, Michigan, Cornell and Chicago all seem to have a typical load of about 2-3 subjects per year. However, they have a different level of involvement with students due to the greater concentration on "homework" and their use of Teaching Assistants.

8. University New South Wales, School of Computer Science and Engineering

The formula quoted in the table below is a transcription from a 1992 document. This was confirmed as current in 1995 and again in 1997:
From: Bill Wilson 
Subject: Workload formulae
Date: Mon, 08 Sep 1997 09:29:14 +1000

Geoff: A couple of years ago while TimM was at Monash he contacted
me for a copy of the School's Workload formula as input to a possible
formula for use at Monash. 

Heinz: we still use the same model. 1.0 points = 1 hour of work per

Bill Wilson
Note that the weights below are normalised per hour lecture, where the original table lists the weights per subject or tutorial (each 2 hours of contact).

Unlike most of the other models the repeat lecture is credited as the basis with 1 point per lecture hour. Minor revisions are explicitly factored in under the default ``lecture'' which counts 2.5 hours per week. Also tutorials are calculated at 1 point per hour, as opposed to the 0.75 per hour at Monash.

The overall result of this formula appears to be two-fold. Firstly, lectures get a little more credit for the actual work outside direct contact. Secondly, the target per staff may be a little over 20 hours per week. (Note that staff on leave get 25h which could be interpreted as the maximal target).
 Lectures (1hr/week full year) 
NL Lecture (new series) 2.0
L Lecture 1.25
RL Repeat Lecture 1.0
PL Parallel Lecture (0 load) 0.0
  Tutorials (1hr/week full year) 
T Tutorial 1.0
TC Tutorial, Consultation, Marking 0.75
  Labs (1hr/week full year)  
LS Lab Supervision 0.5
LT Lab/Tutorial (lab with marking or add'l responsibilities 0.75
C Consultation not subject specific 1.0
XM Add'l marking not counted in subject 1.0
  Subject coordination 
IS Smallish subject (<100) 2.0
IM Medium subject (100-200) 4.0
IL Large subject (> 200) 6.0
AA Admin assistance in medium/large subject (*) 1.0
SA School admin (*) 1.0
SU Ungraduate thesis 1.0
SP Coursework masters thesis 1.0
SR Postgraduate research student 1.5
  Special Duties  
SL Study leave 25
ST Study time (formal courses only) (*) 1.0
SD Special duties as authorized (*) 1.0
NS New staff allowance 5.0
NS2 New staff allowance, 2nd session 5.0
E Evening class allowance 1.0
RA Research allowance per intl paper last year 1.0
(*) any appropriate number of these may apply.
as of 20 July 1992

9. Sydney University, Computer Science

The department developed a load policy to enable staff to more accurately identify their workloads per year. An attempt is made Each academic staff member is assigned load for various activities under three general headings, Administration, Research & Teaching. All figures are intended to reflect time spent (or needing to be spent) based on a nominal rate of a full load of 35 hrs week, 43 weeks per year, or 1500 hrs work. This means 15 hrs work out as 0.01 in the normalised point system.

Experience shows that the load is over 1.0 for all staff in most years (quoth John Rosenberg).

When someone has more or less than the 1.0 total load, the difference is carried forward. Deficit must be made up the following year, while surplus can only be "cashed in" (by having a reduced load) when the Department can manage to share the burden. Accumulated surplus is limited to 0.5. New staff begin with a carry forward equal to the average of the carry forwards for all staff from the previous year.

Staff on sabbatical, leave without pay, or fractional appointment, receive the complementary fraction as "other load" and other loads are adjusted as reported in each section below. e.g. Staff on .75 appointment (either explicitly, or by being on leave for 3 months) get 0.25 "other" load, in addition to the amounts detailed below.

9.1 Teaching Load

For tutorials, it is expected that each contact hour will give rise to 1 hr marking/consulting, but note that the load for these activities goes to whoever does it, who may not be the contact tutor. Preparation time = 1 hr prep for each DIFFERENT tute (i.e. not for repeats) given in any course except one where the staff member is lecturing (where no prep load is allowed).

A subject with a 1 hour contact time means 13 or 14 hours of lectures prepared and delivered by the same person three times. The subject load includes preparation of the appropriate fraction of the year's tutes, assignments and exams, plus discussions with other staff to keep the year coherent. It also includes reporting to Departmental evaluation meeting. (Lecturing contact is only a small part of the responsibility - preparation is far more expensive in time taken). This is counted as 0.12.

Similarly, a 28 lecture module, each lecture given 2 times, counts 0.22. Load includes preparation of the exam, tutorials, assignments, marking schemes; also marks processing, attendance at departmental examiners meeting, reporting to evaluation meeting, etc.

If a lecturer has not taught a similar course in recent years, the load allowed is the base value multiplied by 1.25.

If any duty is delegated to another staff member, the load is shared appropriately. Fractional appointments are awarded the full rate for any duty taken.

The Large Programming Project, including preparation, practical exam, and all machine marking, attendance at departmental examiners meeting, reporting to evaluation meeting, is counted as 0.05.

A third year Project Module involves preparing and delivering: 2 hrs lectures per week for a semester, preparing a 1 hour tute per week (questions and solutions), preparing assignments and exam (questions and solutions), marks processing, module administration, attending department examiners meetings. This is counted as 0.15. Extra points are awarded for project module coordination (0.01) and project module supervision (0.01 per group of 4 students).

The fourth year Colloquium organisation (including giving introductory lectures at the start of semester) counts 0.02 per stream (including selecting stream papers, attending presentations, advising students before, and reading the stream reports at the end).

Fourth year lectures are 18 hrs lectures, plus all marking = 0.04 + 0.004*min (x, 10), where x equals the number of students in the module. (Thus if there are more than 10 students, the load is 0.08, while if there are 5 , the load is 0.06 and if only 2 students, the load is 0.048. Note that auditors are not counted in this calculation; also no load is allowed for a module with zero or 1 student. (Unlike other years, neither of these loads is increased when it is a new responsibility)
Lecturing yearhrs/week
1st year, 2hrs twice 0.22 7.7
2nd/3rd year, 2hrs twice 0.22 7.7
3rd year project lecture 0.15 5.25
Honours subject (> 10) 0.08 2.8
Honours seminar stream 0.02 0.7
Subject novelty, multiply  
new subject 1.25 1.25
Tutorials 1hr  
Contact 0.0286 1.0
Marking 0.0286 1.0
Preparation 0.0286 1.0

9.2 Research Load

Research student supervision counts as 0.05 per student, whether Honours or higher degree research.

Beside accounting for research student supervision, the research load is determined as a compound of publications and grants. Lecturers & above are given a research load of at least 0.3 for the first three years of appointment, as are Associate Lecturers enrolled in a research degree.

Staff are expected to publish 2 papers average per year. Publications are counted for the purpose of determining research load. Full papers count 1 point per paper in refereed journal, or paper in conference with published proceedings, or chapter in book. (Not unpublished workshop, or dept. tech report). Books count 3 points per book (authored or edited). Each member of academic staff has this measure aggregated over the past 3 years (as recorded in the Departmental Handbook); the measure is adjusted inversely for partial employment (e.g. fractional or unpaid leave) during the period.

The median value of this measure among all staff (Lecturer & above) is calculated. For each staff member, if the ratio of their measure to the median is greater than 2 (the expected average number of publications), the research load is 0.4. For each other staff member where the ratio is at least 0.5, or where the staff member is either at Lecturer or above and in their first 3 years or at Associate Lecturer level and enrolled in a research degree, then the research load is 0.3. For other staff, the research load is 0.2.

Note that for the purpose of counting the average number publications, each author (or co-authored work) gets the full credit. Papers are counted as soon as they are accepted for publication. The additional research load for an individual is calculated as the Income / 75K (with maximum value of 0.15). The income equals the direct overhead income to the Department arising from the individual's research grants and research contracts. Overhead income for each grant will be distributed equally among the principal investigators unless agreed otherwise. These overheads will be counted in the grant year.

Note that 75K is approximately the average cost of a member of academic staff, including overheads.

For example, a staff member entitled to a 0.3 (publications) load who is sole principal investigator for an ARC grant of $50K in 1997 would receive a research loading of 0.3 + 5K/75K = 0.37.
Research Supervisionyearhrs/week
Masters (Research)0.051.75
approx. > 20.414
approx. 1 paper or new researcher0.310.5
< 1 paper0.27.0
Grant income  
min(0.15, Income / 75)0.155.25

9.3 Administration Load

Various administrative duties are spelled out and accounted for in detail. In general these are heavy administration duties of least 0.05, ie. 75 hrs, i.e. in excess of 2 weeks of work.

For example chairing of various committees includes incidental duties such as membership of relevant Faculty committees. Chairing the Education (Course) Committee includes international student matters and teaching quality audit.

Overhead load is included for all staff for meeting attendance, mail, phone and 6 hrs advising/registering and 20 hrs exam marking per semester plus one Faculty examiners meeting.

Professional development of 0.1 can be claimed. Lecturers A may claim this for a maximum of 5 years. Lecturers B may claim for first year only.
Ugrad Director & Tut Manager0.3010.5
Ugrad Admin, Timetable, Exam admin0.207.0
Honours Director & Seminars0.207.0
PDR course Director (BIT, MInfTech)0.103.5
Program Marketing0.155.25
Chair of Departmental Committee   
Resources & Space0.207.0
Research (Also responsible for P/g students)0.207.0
Education 0.207.0
Other Administration   
Overhead load 0.103.5
External Relations & Summer School0.207.0
Professional Development Load:0.103.5

10. Australian National University, Computer Science Department

From my time at ANU (92-94) and discussions with ANU colleagues, only teaching load was allocated by formula. The department is small and everyone is equally into research, although some are taking a larger admin burden than others. At the time, on average, 2 subjects were taken each year, i.e. 1 subject per semester, and admin burden was negotiated with the HOD in part and in part discussed and agreed at annual retreats.

Since 1997 teaching load has increased slightly to three 6 credit point units average (6 credit points equal 1/8 of a year), with approximately 20 lecture hours per unit per semester. Major admin items are now figures in as well. So are honours and research student supervision. Additional weight is given to units new to the lecturer and (more weight) entirely new subjects.

Large units such as first-year have a extra post of subject coordinator, which is credited appropriately.

From discussions with the HOD: "Everyone is DEEMED to be equally into research, but in fact they are not equally so. The discrepancy is now becoming so evident that I am bing asked to give some consideration to weighting the previous year's research output contribution and I propose to use a formula equivalent to that for research quantum publications."

Major administration duties, such as year coordination are now explicitly counted. Small admin tasks are not included yet.

The ANU formula used is a weighted sum using the following weights (excluding the tricky bit of teaching release for percentage of CRC research). These weights for lecturing load reflect the stable class sizes in each year across the subjects and may have to be adapted with changing student load / quotas.

Subject (6 credit point, 1 semester, 20 lectures) 
1st year 6.0
2nd year 5.0
3rd year 4.0
4th year (Honours) 4.0
Subject novelty, add 
repeat 0
first time for this lecturer 1.0
new subject 2.0
Tutorial 0.75
Teaching administration 
1st year coordinator 2.0
2nd year coordinator 1.0
3rd year coordinator 1.0
Head of School 10.0
Honours student 1.0
Postgraduate research student 2.0

"The result is that most loads on this model are between 19 to 23".

Source: personal communication, 20 Apr 1998, Dr. Chris Johnson, Head of Department, ANU DCS.

11. Queensland University of Technology, Computer Science

The School of CS is organised in teaching areas (Foundations, Systems, Software Engineering etc). Areas are loosely (self-)organised, recommend lecture allocations, curriculum review, student surveys etc. Ultimately the load allocation is the responsibility of the Head or delegate.

Load is measured in lecture hours per week. In addition the following hours are calculated. Note that small numbers of students e.g. in postgraduate units are to a fair degree compensated for b ythe nature of the material which is typically more advanced. Funded small research projects are credited by an appropriate small number of hours as part of the load caculation.

The baseline per week is 15 to 17 hours.

Subject 1hr/week full-year1.0
Add subject hours  
New unit (preparation) 1.0
Medium subject (100-200 ) 1.0
Large subject (> 200) 2.0
Teaching administration 
Area coordinator 2.0
Major coordinator 2.0
Higher degree research student 1.0
Teaching Release  
previous sem project 1.0 per 3 students
staff PhD 2.0
research project 1.0 - 2.0 per project

Source: personal communication, 09 Apr 1998, A/Prof George Mohay, Head of Department, QUT DCS.